Nemesis (Ancient Greek: Νέμεσις, literally: ‘assigning / distributing the deserved punishment’) is a figure from Greek mythology. She is the ruthless goddess of entitled revenge. Nemesis is the daughter of Nyx (“night”) and she obeys Zeus, although she is older than him. Hybris (Ὑβρις, “recklessness”) is punished by her.
Nemesis was also taken over by the Romans and retained its old name. Triumphant generals made sacrifices to her, and during the empire she was the patroness of the gladiators. On images, Nemesis (just like Lady Justice, (Latin: Iustitia)) carries a sword and scales. Her carriage is pulled by griffins.
The name Nemesis was given in 1984 to a hypothetical red dwarf or brown dwarf that would orbit the Sun at a distance of 50,000-100,000 AU.
The proposal comes from Richard A. Muller, and was made to explain a cycle of massive species extinction on Earth. This cycle of approximately 26 million years had previously been reported by David Raup and Jack Sepkoski. According to the Nemesis hypothesis, the Sun would have a smaller companion star that would approach the Oort cloud every 26 million years and disrupt the orbit of comets, part of which would end up on Earth and be responsible for a wave of extinction. .
No direct evidence has ever been found for such an object, and the 26 million-year cycle in the extinction of organisms on Earth is under discussion.
Nemesis (ship, 1839)
The Nemesis was the first British iron warship. It was launched in 1839 after a short three-month construction period. She was equipped with sails, but it was also a paddle steamer. She has served mainly in the Far East. It played an important role against the Chinese navy during the First Opium War.
The British East India Company (English: East India Company or EIC) was the client for the construction of the ship. It was built in three months at John Laird’s shipyard in Birkenhead. It was equipped with sails, but also with two wheels. For propulsion, it received two steam engines of 60 horsepower each. The bunkers were large enough to carry coal for 20 days of sailing. It was armed with two 32-pounders and four 6-pounders. It was equipped with watertight bulkheads, a novelty of the time. The combination of sails and wheels and its shallow draft make it particularly suitable for operations along the coast and on the major rivers.
She made a good impression on her first trip from Liverpool. With sail and steam she reached a speed of 9 knots in March 1840. She headed south, but in one night she collided with a rock off the coast of Cornwall. She deviated from the course because the magnetic compass was not functioning properly on the iron ship. The hull plate was damaged and water poured in. The watertight bulkheads worked well and prevented them from going down. At high tide she released on her own and sailed to Portsmouth for repairs.
It departed from Portsmouth on March 28, 1840 and arrived in Macao on November 25, 1840 after 243 days of sailing.
During the First Opium War, she played an important role in the fight against the Chinese. Her shallow draft allowed her to get close to the Chinese fortresses and junks to target them with her cannons and missiles. She sailed with other Royal Navy ships.
On January 7, 1841, she came into action during the second battle in the Pearl River Delta. This was the access road to the important port of Guangzhou and along the river were several Chinese fortresses and fortifications to defend the city. From the Nemesis, a congressional missile was fired at a Chinese junk. It was hit and went down after a massive explosion. Almost the entire Chinese squadron went down that day, only two small ships managed to escape. The Nemesis towed two more junks upstream, but one got stuck on a sandbar and was left behind.
She returned to action on February 27, 1841, destroying the Cambrigde, an old EIC freight forwarder. The Chinese had bought and armed the ship, but it was berthed without personnel. A squad of marines, including some from the Nemesis, boarded and after investigating the ship, set it on fire. The shallow draft allowed the Nemesis to sail far up the river and played a role in the capture of Guangzhou on March 18.
After the war, she was deployed against pirates in Indonesia and the Philippines. She returned to China in late 1846. There were unrest in Guangzhou and she was used to defend British interests. In February 1847, peace had returned and she left again, but this was protested by British traders in the city. In February 1854 she departed from Shanghai to Belfast.
Nemesis (roller coaster)
The Nemesis is an upside-down rollercoaster at Alton Towers in Staffordshire, UK.
The track was built by the Swiss roller coaster builder Bolliger & Mabillard and opened on March 19, 1994. Nemesis is the first inverted roller coaster in Europe. Because Alton Towers is bound by a height restriction – no higher than the tree line can be built – Nemesis is located in a ravine, so that the roller coaster at its highest point, although not higher than 13 meters above the ground, has a drop of more than 30 meters. The theme of the roller coaster is a large monster that can be controlled with the help of the tons of steel of the track.
Nemesis is one of Alton Towers’ most popular attractions, and due to the track’s success, a similar attraction opened in Thorpe Park in 2003 called Nemesis Inferno.